Pictorial Techniques.
 

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The Color

The Composition

Tempera

Oil

Watercolour, Gouache, Pastel

The Fresco

The art of the stained glass

Creative craftsmen

Painting annealed glass

Restoration of the old stained glasses

Techniques

 

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Painting is the artistic practice which consists in covering a surface of colors.

The characters of each object depend on the material conditions and techniques on production: materials available and accessible, the organization of the forms on surface, the appearance of the keys and effects produced, the relationship between the color and graphics.... Painting, before representing objects, is only one plane surface covered with colors.

3 fundamental elements are distinguished : the support of painting, pigments coloured and the medium, a liquid whose action aims to crush, dilute and fix the pigments on the support. In the majority of the cases, a coating isolates the support from the pictorial layer. After painting, one applies, in general, a varnish which protects the pictorial layer and tends to ensure the stability of the colors. The manufacture of these elements is generally complex, the formulas depend on the workshops which hold them secret and modify them constantly, according to the required effects. In the case of old painting, our knowledge is due, mainly, with the work of the restorers who analyze paintings in laboratory.

The final result of a painting also depends on the instruments which are used to apply the color to surface: the most unexpected brushes, brushes, knives, sprays of all kinds and all dimensions and instruments, like the human body or of the machines intended a priori for another use. One in general distinguishes two principal groups from techniques : paintings based on water, known as " will tempera " and paintings based on oil. There is a case is very particular; it is about painting on wall, said " to fresco ".

In addition to having to know the techniques practise to carry out its works the artist must have some notions on the harmony and contrast of the colors and especially not distribute them in a too random way on its fabric. In general under a table there is always a composition under unclaimed which answers relatively strict rules but those evolved with the wire of time.

For the realization of a painted work, the choice of materials and techniques vary according to the required effect: to create a fluid atmosphere, to prefer the form, to remain faithful to the subject… Whereas the technique of the fresco mural carried out using pigments of mineral origin on a support made up of sand and extinct lime is appropriate for great compositions, the oil-base paint and the acrylic resin adapt to any type of realization.

The watercolour and the painted enamel are used for work of less size which requires an extreme smoothness.