Vincent Van Gogh (1853-1890)
To the whole beginning the repeated of Van Gogh, sentimental and professional failures, plunge it in a crisis which it tries to leave thanks to the drawing. In fact works of Jean François Millet are used to him as model. Thus the agricultural work, the peasants with the labour, sowing digging or planting potatoes, constitutes a good share of its work between 1882 and 1885. One discovers also scenes of kind, the everyday life of the people of modest means, as the potato eaters which remain the emblematic
picture of this period.
Vincent who lived itself in greatest poverty, is caught compassion for the people of modest means, for the common peoples, it becomes social painter and the peasants, the ropemaking machines, the menders of nets, the tisserands are its preferred subjects. However the artist also starts to be interested in the landscapes and among always realistic portraits one notices fields of tulips or the quays of Antwerp. The alleys and the landscapes of autumn in more or less luminous tone, the trees, and some portraits similar to died natures as cranium with the cigarette which is a vanity make it possible him to be expressed in a traditional register, where the construction of the fabrics is precise and rigorous. Portraits of country-women and girls of the people, women or men enable him to acquire qualities of portraitist and to thus aguerrir his eye.
The principal characteristic of this "Dutch period" of Van Gogh is the use of a pallet to the dark, earthy colours. February 20, 1886 Vincent arrives to Paris and discovers the first weeks the fabrics of the impressionists. Dice this moment its style will
In died natures, the portraits, the landscapes, the pallet is cleared up and the key splits up. It becomes acquainted with Monet, Renoir, Sisley, Degas, Signac, Toulouse Lautrec, Gauguin and Seurat, it binds friendship with Pissarro and one of its Lucien sons like with Emile Bernard. Under the influence of the impressionists the colour of its dead nature and its tables of flowers becomes clearer and more alive. Little by little, Vincent takes again on his account the expensive topics with the impressionists. Sights of Paris, boats, the garden of Luxembourg, subjects in nature, the terraces of the restaurants, Montmartre and of dead natures.
Compared to the " Dutch period " the pallet of Vincent during his
" impressionist time " is much clearer, the colors are more sharp. One notes especially the appearance of yellows of greens and blue very clear. These same colors are found with identical in the
" japonaiseries ", tables inspired of Japanese prints that Vincent paints in 1887. The influence of the Masters of Ukiyo-e, the
" floating world ", especially Hiroshige and Hokusai must be apprehended perfectly for seizing well the evolution of the style of Van Gogh.
In the Japanese print writing and painting are closely frays since writing is added to the graphic set of the painted lines representing the elements of the landscape. There are francs with-dishes of tone and generally of the arabesques or spirals closed again on themselves. The difference in scales between the subjects induces space depth. These prints are generally built according to a staging of successive horizontal plans.